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Geothermal energy

is the heat from the Earth. It's clean, renewable and sustainable. Heat from the earth can be used as an energy source in many ways, from large and complex power stations to small and relatively simple pumping systems.
This heat energy is an affordable and sustainable solution to reducing dependence on fossil fuels, and the global warming and public health risks that result from their use.
Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.
The areas with the highest underground temperatures are in regions with active or geologically young volcanoes. These regions are also seismically active. Earthquakes and magma movement break up the rock covering, allowing water to circulate. As the water rises to the surface, natural hot springs and geysers occur.
Seismically active hotspots are not the only places where geothermal energy can be found. There is a steady supply of milder heat at depths of anywhere from few to hundred meters below the surface virtually in any location on Earth. Even the ground below your own backyard or local school has enough heat to control the climate in your home or other buildings in the community.

How Geothermal Energy is captured:

Geothermal springs for power plants.

Currently, the most common way of capturing the energy from geothermal sources is to tap into naturally occurring "hydrothermal convection" systems, where cooler water seeps into Earth's crust, is heated up, and then rises to the surface. Once this heated water is forced to the surface, it is a relatively simple matter to capture that steam and use it to drive electric generators. Geothermal power plants drill their own holes into the rock to more effectively capture the steam.

Geothermal or Ground-source heat pumps.

This system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system, and a heat exchanger system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building. In the winter, the heat pump removes heat from the heat exchanger and pumps it into the indoor air delivery system. In the summer, the process is reversed, and the heat pump moves heat from the indoor air into the heat exchanger. The heat removed from the indoor air during the summer can also be used to provide a free source of hot water.